Technical Background

Boiling Advantage

Cooling effectiveness, which is defined in terms of rate of heat removed per unit area per unit device-to-coolant temperature difference, is governed by both cooling configuration and type of coolant used.  Three cooling configurations are commonly used, natural convection, where mild coolant motion is achieved by temperature-induced density gradients, forced convection, where coolant motion is achieved by a mechanical ... read more


Micro-Channel Cooling

Micro-channel cooling is commonly achieved with the aid of a heat sink consisting of a high conductivity substrate that contains a large number of parallel, small diameter channels. These heat sinks are very compact and lightweight, and by allowing the coolant to undergo phase change (boiling) along the channels, they provide heat transfer coefficients far greater than those possible with single-phase liquid counterparts ... read more


Spray Cooling

Spray cooling provides several important cooling benefits, such as high heat transfer coefficients, high critical heat flux (CHF), and better surface temperature uniformity than jet impingement for a relatively large surface.  Cooling effectiveness is realized by breaking the liquid into a dispersion of fine droplets having large surface-area-to-volume ratio, which acquire multiple trajectories and impact a broad surface area ... read more


Flow Condensation

Modern technologies are demanding more effective schemes to tackle heat removal from very high power density devices.  The vast majority of published research addressing thermal management has been dedicated to heat extraction from the device itself rather than the ultimate heat rejection.  This trend is driven by the assumption that a commercial condenser could always be found to reject the heat from virtually any thermal management system ... read more